Term Definition
George Washington A military leader for America who had great leadership skills and character.
Ethan Allen One of the two military leaders who led the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
Benedict Arnold One of the two military leaders who led the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
Fort Ticonderoga British garrison captured by Allen and Arnold in May 1775.
Bunker Hill Scene of a Patriot victory in Boston. Seized a gun shop.
Olive Branch Petition (July 1775) Showed that the colonists were still trying to be loyal to the British crown.
Hessians German mercenaries that the king sent to America to control his subjects.
Richard Montgomery Leading figure of the American invasion of Canada who was killed.
Falmouth and Norfolk Two American cities that were burned by the British.
Thomas Paine Published the Common Sense pamphlet.
Common Sense (1776) Influential pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that expressed that it was against common sense that the Americans were not declaring independence from Britain.
Republicanism Type of government proposed by Thomas Paine where all government officials were elected by popular consent.
Natural aristocracy An aristocracy based on work and talent and not birth and special privilege.
Richard Henry Lee Proposed the idea of independence for the colonies.
Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence An explanation of rights written by Thomas Jefferson that was approved by Congress on July 4, 1776.
Natural rights Jefferson stated in the Declaration of Independence that King George III had flouted these; fundamental rights which the government couldn't control.
Loyalists Colonials loyal to the king.
Patriots The American rebels who were against the king.
Patrick Henry A young Patriot whose "Give me liberty or give me death!" speech quickened patriotic pulses.
William Howe Washington's adversary in the Battle of Long Island.
Trenton Where Washington captured and defeated 1,000 sleeping Hessians on December 26, 1776.
Princeton Where Washington defeated a small British detachment a week after Trenton.
General Burgoyne Led an invasion of New England down Lake Champlain in 1777.
Benedict Arnold Fought the British in the Lake Champlain area and stalled them long enough to force them to retreat and not recapture Fort Ticonderoga.
Saratoga Where Burgoyne surrendered his force in 1777.
Horatio Gates American general who forced Burgoyne to surrender in 1777.
Model Treaty Created to guide the American commissioners in the French court.
Benjamin Franklin in Paris Thought that his presence was enough to start a diplomatic revolution. Wore simple, homespun clothes.
Armed Neutrality Consisted of the European neutrals with an attitude of hostility towards Britain.
Nathanael Greene Quaker general who led the Carolina campaign of 1781. Used his strategy of delay.
Charles Cornwallis British general who was defeated in the Carolina campaign of 1781 by Nathanael Greene.
Iroquois Confederacy Indian tribes that were mostly sided with the British.
Joseph Brant Mohawk chief who led the British-sided Iroquois Indians on the ravaging on PA and NY.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) First treaty signed between the US and an Indian nation; forced Indians to cede most of their land.
George Rogers Clark Frontiersman who had the idea of capturing the British forts in the Illinois country.
John Paul Jones Most famous officer of the emerging American navy.
Privateers Privately owned armored ships authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping.
Yorktown Where General Cornwallis was cornered in the Chesapeake area; one of the final decisive victories.
U.S. peace negotiation team Gathered in Paris; consisted of three men.
John Adams One of the three peace negotiators who was vigilant for New England interests.
John Jay Peace negotiator who was suspicious of the French wanting to betray America for Spain's good and made separate overtures to London.
Treaty of Paris Stretched the borders of the United States west to the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes, and south to Spanish Florida.