|What consists of the axial skeleton?||Skull:Cranium and face
Hyoid bone, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, thorax, sternum, ribs
|What consists of the appendicular skeleton?||Pectoral girdles:Clavicle,scapula
Upper limbs:humerus, ulna, radius, carpals,metacarpals,phalanges,pelvic girdle(hip,pelvic,coxal bone),
Lower limbs:femur,patella,fibula,tibia,tarsals, metatarsals,phalanges.
126 bones total
|How many types of bone are there? And some examples.||5
Long(humerus),short(trapezoid,wrist bone),flat(sternum,scapula),irregular(vertebral),sesamoid bone(patella)
|What are sutural bones?||Small bones located in sutures(joints)between certain cranial bones.|
|What are surface markings?||Characteristic of the bone;structural features adapted for specific functions.|
|What 2 types of surface markings are there?||Depressions and openings which allow the passage of soft tissues such as blood,vessels,nerves,ligaments,tendons or form joints.
2)Processes:pronections of outgrowths that either help form joints,or serve as attachment points for connective tissue such as
|What kind of marking is a FORAMEN? Describe,and give example.||A depression and opening.
Opening through which blood vessels,nerves,or ligament pass.
OPTIC FORAMEN OF SPHENOID BONE
|What type of markind is a fissure? Desribe, and give example.||Depression and opening.
Narrow slir between adjacent parts of bone through which blood vessels or nerve pass.
SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE OF SPHENOID BONE
|What type of marking is a fossa? Desribe and give example.||Depression and opening. Shallow depression.
CORONOID FOSSA OF HUMERUS.
|What type of bone marking is a SULCUS? Describe and give example.||Depression and opening. Furrow along bone surface that accomodates blood vessel, nerve, or tendon.
INTERTUBERCULAR SULCUS OF HUMERUS.
|What type of bone depression is a MEATUS? Describe and explain.||Depression and opening. Tubelike opening.
EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS OF TEMPORAL BONE.
|What type of bone depression is a CONDYLE? Describe and explain.||Process(projection that forms growth).
Large, round protuberance with a smooth articular surface at the end of bone.
LATERAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR.
|What is a FACET? Describe and give example.||Process bone marking.
Smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface.
SUPERIOR ARTICULAR FACET OR VERTEBRA.
|What is a bone organ made up of|
|Several different tissues working together bone which is osseous tissue cartilage dense connective tissue epithelium adipose tissue and nervous tissue|
|What is the skeletal system consisted of||Of Bones and their cartilage constitute the skeletal system|
|The skeletal system perform several basic functions:||Support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasi; which is also storage and release, blood cell production, triglycerides storage;which is in the yellow bone marrow.|
|Describe how the skeletal system serves in support?||The skeleton serves as the structural framework for the body of supporting soft tissues and provides attachment points for the tendons of most skeletal muscles|
|How does the skeletal system perform protection?||The skeleton protects most important internal organs from injury for example cranial bones protect the brain and the rib cage protects the heart and lungs.|
|How does the skeletal system perform assistance in movement?||Most skeletal muscles attached to bones, when they contract they pull on Bones to produce movement.|
|How does the skeletal system perform blood cell production||Within certain bones a connective tissue called red bone marrow produces red blood cells,white blood cells,and platelets in a process called hemopoiesis.Red bone marrow consist of developing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages within a n|
|How does the skeletal system perform triglyceride storage?||Yellow bone marrow consist mainly of adipose cells which store triglycerides. The stored triglycerides are a potential chemical energy reserve.|
|Describe a long bone||One that has greater length than with|
|The diaphysis:(growing between);is the bone's shaft or body-the long, cylindrical, main portion of the bone.|
|The epiphyses (is growing over;singular is epiphysis) are the proximal and distal ends of the bone.|
|The metaphysis (between;singular is metaphysis)are the regions between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. In a growing bone each metaphysis contains an epiphyseal growth plate;a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in len||The articular cartilage is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation(joint) with another bone. Reduces friction and absorbs shock at freely movable joints.|
|The periosteum is a tough connective tissue sheath and its Associated blood supply that surrounds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage; composed of an outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue and an inner oste||The periosteum is attached to the underlying bone by Perforating fibers or Sharpey's fibers which are known as thick bundles of collagen that extend from the periosteum into the bone extracellular matrix.|
|What is the Medullary cavity?||Medullary cavity(marrow pith) is a hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow and numerous blood vessels in adults.Minimizes the weight of the bone by reducing the dense bony material where it is least needed.|
|What are the functions of bone tissue||1)Support soft tissue and provides attachment for skeletal muscles 2)protects internal organs 3)assists in movement, along with skeletal muscles 4)stores and releases minerals 5)contains red bone marrow;which produces red blood cells 6)contains yellow bon|
|What is bone extracellular matrix consist of:||The extracellular Matrix is about 15% water 30% collagen fibers and 55% crystallized mineral salt.|
|What is the most abundant mineral in bone?||Salt is calcium phosphate it combines with another mineral salt, calcium hydroxide to form crystals of hydroxyapatite.|
|What is calcification||The process in which mineral salts are deposited in the framework formed by the collagen fibers of the extracellular Matrix, they crystallized and the tissue hardens.|
|What is calcification initiated by||Calcification is initiated by bone-building cells called osteoblast|
|What is responsible for the characteristics of bone?||July salts and collagen fibers.|
|What constitutes the hardness of a bone and a bones flexibility?||A bones hardness depends on the crystallized inorganic mineral salts; a bones flexibility depends on its collagen fibers.|
|What do osteoclasts do||Are responsible for breaking down bone by secreting enzymes and acids that break down both the mineral salts and the collagen fibers of the extracellular Matrix of bone.|
|What four types of cells are present in bone tissue:||Osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts,osteocytes,and osteoclasts.|
|What are osteoprogenitor (producing) cells?
Found along the inner portion of the periosteum,in the endosteum, and in the canal within bone that contain blood vessels.
|Specialized bone stem cells derived from mesenchyme, the tissue from which almost all connective tissues are formed.They are the only bone cells to undergo cell division;the resulting cells develop into osteoblast.|
|What are osteoblast?
|Bone building cells that synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular Matrix of bone tissue;they initiate calcification.|
|What are osteocytes?
|Mature bone cells;are the main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily metabolism, such as the exchange of nutrients and waste with the blood;they do not undergo cell division.|
|What are osteoclasts?
|Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes and are concentrated in the endosteum.|
|How many percent of the skeleton is compact bone and spongy bone?||80% is compact,and 20% is spongy bone.|
|What is compact bone tissue?
Is composed of repeating structural units called osteons or haversian systems.
|Contains few spaces and is the strongest form of bone tissue.Provides protection,and support and resists the stresses produced by weight and movement. Osteons in compact bone are aligned in the same direction and are parallel to the length of the diaphysi|
|What is spongy bone tissue;referred to as trabecular or cancellous bone tissue.
Does not contain osteons
|Always located in the interior of a bone protected by a covering of compact bone;consists of lamellae that are arranged in an irregular pattern of thin columns called trabeculae.|
|Perforating fibers are also known as:||Sharpey's fibers|
|What does each trabecular consist of:||Concentric lamellae, osteocytes that lie in lacunae and canaliculi that radiate outward from the lacunae.|
|Spongy bone tissue makes up most of the Interior bone tissue of what kind of bones?||Short, flat,sesamoid, and irregularly-shaped bones. In long bones it forms the core of the epiphysis beneath the paper thin layer of compact bone.|
|How is spongy bone tissue different from combat bone tissue in two respects?||Spongy bone tissue is light which reduces the overall weight of a bone, and the trabeculae of spongy bone tissue supports and protects the red bone marrow.|
|Where are the places that red bone marrow is stored||The hip bones,ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and the proximal ends of the humerus and femur is the only site where red bone marrow is stored and thus is the site where hemopoiesis occurs in adults.|
|What are veins that carry blood away from long bones?||One or two nutrient veins, epiphyseal veins and metaphyseal veins, periosteal veins.|