Question Answer
Psychology that deals with sensation and perception Cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology and humanistic
You gather information from your senses and give it meaning through the ____. Process of perception
We call the actual information our senses take in _____. (Light,sound,heat,pressure,smell,taste) Energy
We have ______ _______ that modify energy like the lenses of the eye which focuses light or the outer ear which collects sound. Accessory structures
Process of converting energy into neural activity Transduction
Neural receptors for certain forms of energy (sounds,sights,smells, ect.) Start _____. Action potentials
_____ respond best to change, our senses adapt to static info. Receptors
Smallest amount your senses can detect Absolute thresholds
Absolute threshold for sight Candle from 30 miles away
Absolute threshold for sound Tick of a watch from 20 feet away
Absolute threshold for taste 1 tsp of sugar in 2 gallons of water
Whether or not you choose to pay attention Response bias
Why can't we detect at this level Response bias, signal,
If items are light weight it is easy to detect a small differece.The heavier they are the harder it is to detect that same small weight (just-noticeable difference =Smallest detectable difference.) One of the oldest theories in psychology. Weber Law
Light and sound energy are referred to as ____. Waves
Light intensity = Brightness
Color, different wavelengths of light produces different colors. Light wavelength
Rod-shapes retinal cells that detect light. Allow you to adapt to the dark Rods
Come shapes retinal receptors that see color, located in the doves (center circle or retina) Cones
3 types of cones see blue, green, and red Trichromatic theory
We still don t understand _____ vision Color
Outer protective curved portion of eye Cornea
Opening behind cornea where light can enter the eye. Pupil
Gives your eye it's color, controls the amount of light allowed to enter by opening and closing the pupil. Iris
Behind the pupil works like the lens on a camera and helps you focus. Lens
Inner surface of the back of the eye, detects light and color (Ross and cones) network of neurons Retina
Ability to change the shape of the lens to bend light rays Ocular accommodation
When the lenses becomes ___ flexible older people need reading glasses (farsighted) Less
Nearsightedness= Genetic
_____ in the retina have axons that form the optic nerve and then on to the brain (thalamus) and on to occipital lobe. Ganglion cells
Left eye sends info to _____ Right brain
Right eye sends info to left brain and then the ____ _____ communicates between both hemispheres to use the visual information. Corpus callosum
A repeating fluctuation in air pressure produced by vibrations Sound
Amplitude, or height, of the soundwave> measured in decibals Loudness
How high or low the sound is ( not volume) man vs woman's voice> hertz Pitch
Pitch and loudness Timbre (tamber)
The _____ could be described as the passing on of vibrations. Hearing process
Accessory structure. Cups sound like a funnel. In the ear Pinna
Contains the tympanic membrane (eardrum) which is a tightly stretched structure. 3 little bones inside that helps amplify the vibrations: hammer anvil Middle ear
Passed from middle ear into cochlea (snail) where transduction occurs. The basilar membrane (has little hairs that flap like a sheet in the wind) makes connection with the acoustic nerve= axons to the brain (specifically the thalamus and then into the tem Inner ear
Middle earbones are fused, hearing sides help,nerve deafness-hair cells that pass info to acoustic nerve are damaged, occurs in elderly and in those exposed to loud noise (recent increase in adolescents) Conduction deafness
The chemical senses Taste and smell
Smell,detect chemicals in the air. Olfactory perception
Chemicals come in contact with receptors in the mouth. Taste perception
Flavor, these 2 pathways converge in the central cortex. Both can bring about strong emotional responses, both are accessory structure. Taste and smell
_____ does not go through thalamus Smell
Axons go directly to the brain through the ________- is strongly connected (with neurons) to the amygdala where sensory information is linked to memory and emotion. Taste aversions Olfactory bulb
Exist in the animal world in which scent on one animal can affect the behavior of another animal> mating, territorial behavior, ect. Pheromones
Taste buds, located on the tounge and roof of mouth, about 10,000 in humans. Sweet,sour,bitter and salty receptors in mouth Papillae
________ Affects taste (sweet foods are better warm), we eat more with a variety of taste (adaptation) Temperature
Spicy hot foods can activate ____ receptors in the mouth. Pain
Some of our taste preferences are ____. Inherited,innate
Largest organ in your body Skin
Touch(Response to change in weight),temperature (has warm/cool sensors),Pain (intensity) How? Neurons for each task. Cutaneous senses
(Internal) tells the brain where the body parts are. The brain knows where the body is being touched based on the receptors in that area, changes in pressure provide the most info Kinesthetic perception
Pain receptors, survival senses,nerve cells (neurons) from spine, to skin, ____ neurons release neurotransmitters in brain and skin. Path= skin:spinal cord:thalamus. Pain sensing
In some cases music and ______ like breathing exercises can decrease feelings, our thoughts affect. Managing pain. Biofeedback
Your body's ability to block pain if it is too intense. There are natural mechanisms that can block pain at the spinal cord level, scratching an itch can help because it sends a different message at the same time as the pain message. Gate control theory
Some people have a disorder where —- are left open and they experience chronic pain. Ex: fibromyalga Pain gates
The brain also has the ability to send pain blocking messages resulting in _____ (reduction in pain sensations) aspirin and other ____ can full pain as wee. Analgesics
Natural pain killers that act as neurotransmitters at many levels of the pain pathways. Can be activated by placebos. Endorphins
Pain tolerance is ____ based on no. Of endorphin receptors inherited. Hereditary
______ release of natural analgesics Stress-induced
Sense of body movement and position. Proprioception
Tells where body parts are in relation to each other, movements are fluid because of prprioceptors in bones, joins and muscles sending info to cerebellum (Ability to practice/master movements) Kinesthetic perception
Sense/sense of equilibrium= tellsbrain the position of your head, sense of balance.inner ear has fluid filled sacs and tubes, they communicate through the acoustic nerve with the cerebellum for coordination. If sacs are distudisturbed you are dizzy Vestibular
Allows you to follow something with eye while head moves, helps balance Vestibular-Ocular reflex
Making meaning out of sensations Perception
The focus is on the figure and everything else becomes background Figure and ground.
Gesalt, seeing whole picture Grouping
Objects/events close together are perceived as belonging together. Proximity
Similar elements, same group Similarity
Filling in gaps Closure
Occurs at same time, related. Synchrony
Perception= Humanistic psychology
What we already know influences what we percieve Perception=Humanistic psychology
We understand based on what we already know Top-down processing
We use our senses to build a picture and recognize info. Bottom-up processing
We start with _____, an inborn fascination/ recognition of faces Perceptual instincts
Larger objects are closer.closer objects are lower in visual field. Closer objects are clearer. Relative size
Eye muscles are involved in processing —. Depth
Motion cue where when things get bigger we know they are getting closer. Looming
Kinesthetic perception tells you whether you are ____ or the other objects around you are. Moving
Movies or chasing lights Stroboscopic illusion
Objects properties remain the same. Perceptual costancy
Can't perceive if you don't ______=process of directing and focusing your mental power Pay attention
We know ______ improves learning,_____ takes effort and makes us tired, _____ is limited, and selective Attention
Attention cannot be ____ past a certain point without diminishing performance. When a task is automatic you can add other task in more easily Divided