Question Answer
endocrine inner with no ducts and produces hormones
exocrine outer with ducts and produces sweat and saliva
two categories of hormones AA based and steroid
receptor location of AA external cell
receptor location of S inner cell
solubility of AA water soluble
solubility of S insoluble in water
effects of AA creates second messenger system
effects of S accesses our DNA
building materials of AA amino acids, peptides, and proteins
building materials of S cholesterol
main types of stimuli for endocrine glands humoral, neural, and hormonal
humoral watery environment
neural in the brain
hormonal one hormone influences the next
oxytocin strong stimulant of uterine contraction, hormonal trigger for milk ejection, in the posterior pituitary, made of 9 AAs
ADH also known as vasopressin, prevents uterine formation, regulates water balance, triggered by pain or low BP, inhibited by alcohol and diuretics, in posterior pituitary, composed of 9 AAs
Growth hormone anterior pituitary, regulated by hypothalamic hormones, GHRH and GHIH, ghrelin (hunger hormone) stimulates release
hypersecretion in children causes gigantism and in adults results in acromegaly
hyposecretion in children results in pituitary dwarfism
thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) anterior pituitary, stimulates normal development of thyroid, release triggered by thyrotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus, inhibited by rising blood levels of thyroid hormones (neg. feedback)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin) adrenal cortex nourishing, anterior pituitary, secreted by corticotropic cells, stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids
gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), secreted by gonadotrophs or ant. pit., stimulated by GnRH
FSH stimulates follicle growth and maturation of the oocyte
LH promotes production of gonadal hormones
Prolactin (PRL) secreted by prolactin cells of ant. pit., stimulates milk production, can actually happen in males, controlled by (PIH) (dopamine), blood levels rise at end of pregnancy
thyroid hormone T3 and T4, affects every cell in body, metabolic, increases metabolic rate, reg. tissue growth and BP, neg. feedback release
calcitonin extrafollicular cells; antagonist to PTH; helps keep calcium in bones
parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts, reabsorbs calcium in kidneys, promotes activation of vitamin D in kidneys
aldosterone regulates electrolytes, causes water retention by kidneys and elimination of K+
regions of pituitary gland posterior (lighter and neuronal) and anterior (darker and vasculature)
portal circulatory route
tract neural route
hormones released from posterior pituitary oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
hormones released from anterior pituitary GH, TSH, adrenocorticotropic, FSH, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone
functions of blood distributing substances, regulating blood levels of substances, maintaining body temp., pH, and fluid volume, and protection
what are the dissolved plasma proteins and their functions albumin: blood buffer, osmotic pressure; globulins: transport molecules; formed elements; erythrocytes: biconcave discs, resp. gas transport;
how does the structure of the RBC affect its function its biconcave shape maximizes the SA in order to increase the oxygen absorption to transport more oxygen around the body to other cells
where do red blood cells form in an embryo? in an adult? in an adult; axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur; in embryo; yolk sac
diapedesis the passage of blood cells through the walls of the capillaries; typically with inflammation
chronic leukemia in older people
acute leukemia in younger people; attacks new cells
events necessary for coagulation when the same antigen and antibody are paired up with each other, the antibody will attack its own cell and agglutinate
events necessary for platelet plugs positive feedback cycle; damaged endothelium exposes collagen fibers, platelets stick to collagen fibers, swell and become sticky, and then release chemical messengers
transfusion transfer of blood from one individual to another
infusion alters the state of blood
where are antigens located on the cell
where are antibodies located in the plasma
antigen/antibody combo with each ABO blood type and with Rh groups type A: anribody B; type B: antibody A; type AB: no antibodies; type O: AB antibodies; Rh: no Rh antibodies
universal donor type O
universal recipient type AB
Rh factor means blood type is positive
most abundant plasma protein albumin
acute hemorrhagic anemia rapid blood loss; treated by blood replacement
chronic hemorrhagic anemia slight, but persistent blood loss; hemorrhoids, bleeding ulcers; primary problem treated
iron-deficiency anemia caused by hemorrhagic anemia, low iron intake, or impaired absorption, microcytic hypochromic RBCs (small white); take iron supplements
pernicious anemia autoimmune, destroys stomach mucosa, lack of intrinsic factor to absorb B12; vegetarians
renal anemia (kidneys) lack of erythropoeitin
aplastic anemia destruction or inhibition of red marrow by drugs, chemicals, radiation, or viruses; all cell lines affected; treated with transfusions or stem cell transplants
hemolytic anemia premature RBC lysis; usually genetic basis for abnormal Hb; globin abnormal
Thalassemias Mediterranean ancestry; one globin chain absent or faulty; RBCs thin and delicate
sickle-cell anemia one amino acid wrong in a globin beta chain; RBCs crescent shaped and rupture easily and block small vessels
polycythemia vera many cells in the blood, severely increased blood viscosity; bone marrow cancer
secondary polycythemia less O2 available and/or EPO production increases leading to a higher RBC count; blood doping
leukocytosis WBC count over 11,000/mm3
leukopoiesis all leukocytes originate from hemocytoblasts
leukopenia abnormally low WBC count
leukemias all fatal if untreated; overproduction of abnormal WBCs
infectious mononucleosis also called Epstein-barr virus; high numbers of atypical agranulocytes
platelets also called thrombocytes; cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes; blue staining outer region with purple granules
platelet plug temporary; helps seal breaks in blood vessels; platelets are inactive until needed for plug and die in about 10 days
hemostasis fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding; 3 steps: vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation
intrinsic pathway coagulation occurs with no tissue damage; uses factors present within blood and causes clotting outside of the body (test tube blood)
extrinsic pathway coagulation triggered with tissue damage; faster
fibrinolysis removes unneeded clots after healing
plasminogen clot converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator, more clotting factors, and thrombin
plasmin fibrin-digesting enzyme
thromboembolic disorders undesirable clot formation
bleeding disorders abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation
disseminated intravascular coagulation involves both types of disorders
thrombus clot that develops and persists in unbroken blood vessel
embolus thrombus freely floating in bloodstream
embolism embolus obstructing a vessel
thrombocytopenia deficient number of circulating platelets
hemophilia A most common type, factor VIII (A8)
hemophilia B factor IX (B9)
hemophilia C mild type; factor XI
erythroblastosis fetalis Rh- mom exposed to Rh+ blood of fetus during delivery of first baby=healthy; second baby=not healthy
autocrines chemicals that exert effects on same cells that secrete them
paracrines locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them
amino acid based hormones water soluble, circulate in blood stream, cannot cross plasma membrane, receptors on external cell; second messenger system
steroidal hormones cholesterol, insoluble in water, can cross plasma membrane, internal receptors; inhibits genes
ghrelin hunger hormone, stimulates release of GH
pineal gland secretes melatonin
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to glucose
gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates
polysuria huge urine output
polydipsia excessive thirst from water loss due to polysuria
polyphagia excessive hunger and food consumption; cells cannot take up glucose and are starving
hyperinsulnism excessive insulin secretion; causes hypoglycemia; treated by sugar ingestion
hCG pee on a stick hormone produced in placenta
leptin appetite control; stimulates increased energy expenditure
resistin insulin antagonist
adiponectin enhances sensitivity to insulin
gastrin stimulates release of HCl
secretin stimulates liver and pancreas
cholecystokinin stimulates pancreas and gallbladder
hematocrit percent of blood volume that is RBCs
buffy coat the fraction of an anticoagulated blood sample that contains most of the white blood cells and platelets
pH of blood 7.35-7.45