Question Answer
When you check overrun, you are checking…

a.excess stock in the storeroom
b.surplus soap/rinse aids for dishmachine
c.the weight of ice cream costs of unexpected meals served

c.the weight of ice cream
What is the process by which the water content of a vegetable is replaced by a concentrated salt solution?
Which ingredient should be adjusted in a recipe if a cake has a crunchy crust and a compact moist texture?
a.milk b.flour
c.sugar d.baking powder
Why do egg whites beat easier at room temp?
a.the pH is increased
b.the protein is denatured
c.there is a lower surface tension
d.the surface tension is higher
c.there is a lower surface tension
Which pigment does not change color in an acid or an alkaline solution?
The principal end products of cellular oxidation are – a) H2O,CO2,En b) C,H,N c) indigestible fiber,N d) monosaccharides, AA, En a) water, carbon dioxide, energy
Carbohydrates listed in order of decreasing sweetness – fructose, glucose, sorbitol, sucrose fructose, sucrose, glucose, sorbitol
Is fruit packed more costly packed as – “dietetic”, in its own natural juice, light syrup, or heavy syrup? as “dietetic”
Rats fed gelatin as the sole source of protein were not growing well. What was the reason? gelatin has no tryptophan, and is low in methionine and lysine
How can you decrease the cholesterol in a recipe? a) use skim milk, b) use margarine, and/or c) use egg sub a, b, & c) use skim milk, margarine, and egg sub
If you replace half & half with whipping cream in ice cream, what/if any, are the effects on the ice crystals? A decrease in size because there is more fat
Fat produces more calories than CHO when oxidized because a)fat has more C & H in relation to O, b) vice a versa, c) fat is larger, d) fat is smaller a) fat has more C &H in relation to O
Research has shown that neural tube defects can be reduced with proper supplementation of a) iron, b) folic acid, c) glutamine, d) arginine b) folic acid
The best laboratory value to use in assessing iron status is a) Hbg, b) Hct, c) ferritin, d) serum iron c) ferritin
Which flour is the best for making cakes? a) graham, b) all-purpose, c) whole wheat, d) durum b) all-purpose – least amount of gluten
Where is lactose absorbed? A) SI, b) stomach, c) pancreas, d) liver a) small intestine
Considering the following smoke points of various fats, which would be the best for frying? 300F, 325F, 375F, or 420F 420F
Which minerals are involved in CHO metabolism? Cobalt, zinc, chromium, copper, and/or iron. chromium & zinc
Acidic chyme becomes neutralized in the duodenum by mixing with bicarbonate & fluids, intestinal enzymes, Na & K, or bile bicarbonate and fluids
The colon functions in the absorption of which of the following: aa’s, fa’s, ufa’s, e-‘s, h2O, salts, vit K, B1, B2, glu water, salts, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin
To prevent frozen gravy from separating when thawed, it should be made with… modified starch to thicken the gravy
How much water is lost through insensible losses? 1 liter
Which amino acid is essential? Alanine, glycine, tyrosine, or tryptophan? tryptophan
Which of the following is an irreversible reaction? Pyruvic acid to lactic acid or acetyl CoA pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA
B1, B2, and B3 are all involved in metabolism of which macronutrient? carbohydrate metabolism
An increased plasma pyruvate level is an indication of iron, riboflavin, or thiamin deficiency? thiamin deficiency
Which of the following stabilizes an egg white foam? An acid, water, flour, or salt An acid
Winterized oil is a) cloudy in the fridge, b) clear in the fridge, c) cloudy when stored for long periods of time, d) clear only if kept at room temp ? b) clear when refrigerated
What may cause EKG abnormalities? High K, low K, low Na, high Na high serum potassium level
When in the fed state, the brain uses which nutrient as a source of energy? Fatty acid, lactic acid, glucose, ketone bodies? glucose
In periods of starvation, the brain uses which nutrients as an energy source? Fatty acid, lactic acid, glucose, ketone bodies? ketone bodies
Gluconeogenesis is a) catabolism of CHO, b) creation of glu from glycerol and aa’s, c) breakdown of glycogen to release glucose, d) creation of glycogen b) the creation of glucose from glycerol and amino acids
Glycolysis is a) catabolism of CHO, b) creation of glu from glycerol and aa’s, c) breakdown of glycogen to release glucose, d) creation of glycogen a) catabolism of carbohydrate
Glycogenolysis is is a) catabolism of CHO, b) creation of glu from glycerol and aa’s, c) breakdown of glycogen to release glucose, d) creation of glycogen the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose
Which statements pertain to glycolysis? a) Catabolism of CHO b) end product of pyruvic acid, c) metab of fatty acids, amino acids, and pyruvic acid a & b – catabolism of CHO and end product of pyruvic acid
Protein-bound iodine (PBI) measures a) thyroid activity, b) En metabolism, c) level of thyroxine produced, and/or d) nutritional status a,b,c – thyroid, energy metab, thyroxine level
Epinephrine (raises/lowers) blood sugar, (stimulates/prevents) glycogenolysis, and is secreted from the _____ glands? raises BS, stimulates glycogenolysis, secreted by adrenal glands
A provitamin is a (nutrient or vitamin) that can be converted into a (nutrient or vitamin) a nutrient that can be converted into a vitamin
The formula for producing the active form of vitamin D is 7 dehydrocholesterol to… cholecalciferol
In the human, vitamin K is affected by mineral oil, anticoagulants, and/or antibiotics? all 3 – mineral oil, anticoagulants, and antibiotics
Which hormone regulates calcium levels in the body? Insulin, thyroid, parathyroid, or aldosterone? parathyroid
Pyridoxine acts as a coenzyme in a) iron transfer, b) deamination and transamination, c) fat transfer through the lymph system, d) osmotic pressure of body fluids b) deamination and transamination
Which of the following are synthesized in part by intestinal bacteria. Pyridoxine, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E, vitamin K biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin K
Ascorbic acid aids in wound healing. Which of the following applies? A) Collagen?hydroxyproline, b) proline?hydroxyproline?collagen, c) hydroxyproline?proline?collagen, d) hydroxyproline?collagen b) proline ? hydroxyproline ? collagen
Biotin is considered a coenzyme in the synthesis of protein, CHO, glycogen, or fatty acids? fatty acids
Food iron is in the form of ferric, ferritin, transferring, or ferrous? ferric
Food iron is reduced in the stomach to the more absorbable form…. Ferric, ferrous, transferring, or ferritin? ferrous
When taking an iron supplement, which would aid absorption? OJ, eggs, hamburger, and/or cow’s milk? OJ (vitamin C) and hamburger (HBV)
Bile is produced in the _____ and stored in the _____. produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Cholecystokinin (CCK) causes a) contraction of the gallbladder, b) peristalsis, c) secretion of pancreatic juice, d) contraction of the liver a) contraction of the gallbladder
Which enzymes are involved in protein digestion? Ptyalin, lipase, sucrose, amylase, trypsin, sucrose, pepsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Protein digestion begins in the a) mouth, b) stomach, c) SI, d) ileum? b) stomach
Lactase is made in the a) stomach, b) SI, c) gallbladder, d) pancreas? b) small intestine
What enzymes are secreted by the pancreas? amylase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Which conversion requires glucose-6-phosphatase? a) glu?liver gly, b) glu?pyruvic acid, c) pyruvic acid?lactic acid, d) liver gly?glu ? d) liver glycogen ? glucose
What is produced in the pentose shunt, essential for synthesis of fatty acids, and whose production requires niacin? NADPH
Thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, coenzyme A, and NAD are required for the conversion of pyruvic acid into active ______ active acetate
Which vitamin acts as a coenzyme in transamination? Pyridoxine, thiamin, riboflavin, or b12 pyridoxine
Glucocorticoids convert a) glucose into protein, b) fatty acids into glucose, c) glucose into fat, d) protein into glucose d) convert protein into glucose
Fats enter the blood as ______ and leave the liver as ______. enter as chylomicrons, leave the liver as lipoproteins
The oxidation of fatty acids forms a) active acetate, b) pyruvic acid, c) lactic acid, d) oxaloacetate a) active acetate
Which of the following can be reversed with vitamin A? a) xerophthalmia, b) nyctalopia, c) Wilson’s disease, d) b) nyctalopia
Fresh meat contamination comes mainly from a) botulism, b) staphylococcus, c) clostridium, d) salmonella d) salmonella
Which amino acids must be present in a parenteral solution? tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, isoleucine
The absorption of iron is enhanced by a) acidic chyme in the duodenum, b) alkalinity of the duodenum, c) oxalates and phytates, d) absence of ascorbic acid a) acidic chyme in the duodenum
Which of the following inhibits gluconeogenesis? Glycogen, insulin, catecholamines, or glucocorticoids? insulin (glycogen, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids raise blood sugar)
Which snack has the least cholesterol? A) pb and crackers, b) yogurt with fruit, c) chocolate cake, d) roast beef sandwich a) pb and crackers
What is the difference between cake and bread flour? cake flour has less gluten, weaker gluten, and less protein
Which vitamin is responsible for development of tissue and skin? vitamin A
A patient with metabolic alkalosis would have (excess or retention) of base by the (lungs or kidneys) retention of base by the kidneys
Which foods should be washed just before serving? A)plum,grapes, b)peach,carrots, c)strawberry,mushroom, d)apple,celery c) strawberry, mushroom
Which government agency inspects and grades meat? FDA, DHHS, USDA, or Dept of Commerce? USDA
If linoleic acid replaces CHO in the diet, what do the LDL and HDL do? (increase/decrease) LDL decreases, HDL increases
Which is not absorbed directly into the portal blood? Monosaccharides, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids, or long chain fatty acids long chain fatty acids
If buttermilk is substituted for whole milk in a pastry crust, be sure to a) decrease the liquid, b) increase the baking soda, c) use additional butter as a plastic fat, d) increase the liquid b) increase the baking soda
Ground meat will spoil faster than sliced meat because a) it has more enzyme activity, b) it has more fat, c) more surface area is exposed, d) it has less fat c) more surface area is exposed
Evaporated milk has a) more than ? of the water removed, b) sugar added, c) fat content of 3-6%, d) lactose removed a) a little more than ? of the water removed
Ketones are most associated with complex CHO’s, simple CHO’s, fats, or amino acids fats
Sorbitol is (more or less) sweet than glucose and absorbed (more or less) slowly less sweet and absorbed more slowly than glucose
What causes egg yolk color to change? a)alteration of the feed given to the hen, b)storage length, c)shell color, d)storage conditions a) alteration of the feed given to the hen
Which data do you need to convert weight to volume? Mass, temperature, specific gravity, or pH? specific gravity
The tartness in fruits and vegetables is due to flavones, chlorophyll, anthoxanthins, or tannins? tannins
When a white sauce tastes starchy and grainy, the likely cause is a)too much starch, b)improper ingredient proportions, c)starch added before fat melted, d)uncooked flour d) uncooked flour
The scientific process by which water makes lettuce crisp is a)osmotic pressure, b)diffusion, c)transamination, d)water active diffusion a) osmotic pressure
Four hours after dining in a restaurant you develop nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea but no fever. The cause may be staph aureus, clostridium botulinum, clostridium perfringens, or streptococcus. staphylococcus aureus
Which hormone greatly influences the BMR? a. the endocrine hormone, b. thyroxine, c. growth hormone, d. insulin b. thyroxine
If linoleic acid replaces saturated fat in the diet: a. total cholesterol including HDL decrease, b. HDL increases, c. LDL increases, d. no change in lipid levels a. total cholesterol including HDL decrease
Which oil is highest in monounsaturated fatty acids? a. olive, b. canola, c. peanut, d. sunflower a. olive
A decreased retention of ____ may result in metabolic acidosis. a. bicarbonate, b. hydrogen, c. chloride a. decreased retention of bicarbonate
A high protein diet increases the need for a. riboflavin, b. thiamin, c. water, d. ascorbic acid c. water
Dry heat cookery should be used for which cut of meat? a. shoulder, b. neck, c. brisket, d. near the backbone d. near the backbone (lean and most tender area)
What color do onions turn when cooked in an aluminum pan? a. purple, b. blue, c. red, d. yellow d. yellow
Which cooking method would best convert collagen to gelatin in a bottom round roast? a. grilling it to med. rare, b. braising, c. broiling, d. searing b. braising (wet heat)
Which method of bread-making is not as dependent on the length of time the dough sits to rise? a. straight, b. sponge, c. continuous, d. prime c. continuous method
Which nutrient is added for flour enrichment? a. vitamin A, b. iodine, c. fluorine, d. iron d. iron
What does the term “USDA graded” on meat tell the customer? a. assures wholesomeness, b. free of disease at time of slaughter, c. fit for human consumption, d. defines quality d. it defines quality (the grade is a measure of quality )
A cake with a fallen center may be the result of: a. too little fat, b. too little sugar, c. excess sugar and excess fat, d. too little baking powder c. excess sugar and excess fat
Which of the following has the least amount of saturated fat? a. 2% milk, b. half and half, c. non-dairy creamer, d. evaporated skim milk d. evaporated skim milk
Coarse texture in a cake is due to: a. too little baking powder, b. over-mixing, c. too much baking powder or sugar, d. oven temperature too high c. too much baking powder or sugar (over-mixing would cause tunnels in the cake)
Nitrogen equilibrium is associated with: a. 25yr old pregnant female, b. 25yr old male, c. 15yr old girl, d. 4yr old child b. 25yr old male (probalance)
Children’s diets are found to be low in iron due to emphasis on: a. vegetables, b. milk, c. fruits, d. cereals b. milk
Which mineral is involved in blood clotting? a. calcium, b. phosphorus, c. iron, d. selenium a. calcium
The cori cycle converts: a. glucose into galactose, b. lactate into pyruvate, c. lactic acid into glycogen, d. glycogen into glucose b. lactate into pyruvate
Fats high in monounsaturated fatty acids include: a. olive and canola, b. safflower and corn, c. coconut and palm, d. soy and peanut a. olive and canola [safflower and corn: poly, coconut and palm: saturated]
Green beans cooked in tomato sauce turn ____ color due to ____. olive green; pheophytin
If you are on a low phosphorus diet, what food should you most avoid? a. beef, b. OJ, c. yogurt, d. bread a. beef (meat)
A 5 month old is diagnosed with salmonella. What is likely the cause? a. fruit juice, b. milk, c. table food, d. evaporated milk c. table food
An 8 month old baby contracts botulism. What is the likely cause? Cereal with a. evaporated milk, b. honey, c. table food, d. fruit juice b. cereal and honey
Which is the best source of emulsification? a. eggs, b. milk, c. salt, d. flour a. eggs
The kidneys respond to respiratory acidosis by: a. increasing Mg secretion, b. exchanging Na for Ca, c. increasing bicarb retention, d. exchanging K for H c. increasing the retention of bicarbonate
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L may be due to: a. an increase in Na-rich foods, b. decreased steroid formation, c. increased aldosterone level, d. a decrease in Na-rich foods c. an increased level of aldosterone
Green peas held on the serving line may turn olive green due to: a. pheophytin, b. chlorophyllin, c. antoxanthins, d. flavones a. pheophytin
In cereal production, enrichment adds: a. vitamin A, b. vitamin D, c. iron, d. iodine c. iron
Cured meat is pink due to: a. sugar, b. salt, c. vinegar, d. nitrites d. nitrites
A serum sodium level of 115 mEq/L may be due to: a. overhydration, b. dehydration, c. a very high sodium intake, d. a sodium intake of 5.5g/day a. overhydration
Butter has fatty acids in this order of predominance: a. PMF, b. SMF, c. MSP, d. MPS b. saturated, mono, poly
Margarine has fatty acids in this order of predominance: a. PMS, b. SMP, c. MSP, d. MPS a. PUFA, MUFA, SAT
Lactic acid is produced by: a. glycolysis, b. gluconeogenesis, c. glycogenesis, d. lactolysis a. glycolysis (Cori Cycle)
Which of the following amino acids is a precursor for serotonin? a. phylalanine, b. methionine, c. tryptophan, d. tyrosine c. tryptophan
Taking Dicumarol would mean you should avoid your intake of: a. spinach, b. beets, c. corn, d. beef a. spinach (vitamin K)
Food was held at 70F for a long time in anaerobic conditions. Eight hours after eating it you became ill. a. salmonella, b. staphylococcus, c. clostridium perfringens, d. campylobacter jejuni c. clostridium perfringens (perfringens and botulism are both anaerobic)
Energy expenditure of humans can be measured by: a. heat intake, b. food intake, c. nitrogen output, d. oxygen consumption d. oxygen consumption
Gastric proteolysis requires: a. pyridoxine, b. ascorbic acid, c. hydrochloric acid, d. the intrinsic factor c. hydrochloric acid
How many milligrams of iron are there in the average American diet/ 1000 cals? a. 3, b. 6, c. 9, d. 12 b. 6
Sorbitol is (less/more) sweet than sucrose and has a (lower/higher) glycemic index than sucrose. sorbitol is less sweet than sucrose and has a lower glycemic index than sucrose
Which mineral is absorbed through the intestine and transported with ceruloplasm in the blood? a. Cu, b. I, c. Na, d. Ca a. copper
The Schilling test detects defects in the absorption of: a. folic acid, b. cyanocobalamin, c. pyridoxine, d. iron b. cyanocobalamin
Which of the following should be avoided on a low sodium diet? a. pork loin, b. turkey roll, c. beef sirloin, d. lamb chop b. turkey roll
What is the effect of excess caffeine intake?
a. insomnia
b. nausea
c. bloating
d. weight gain
a. insomnia
The toxic level of vitamin A has been identified as:
a. 5000 IU
b. 10,000 IU
c. 15,000 IU
d. 20,000 IU
b. 10,000 IU
The best way to prevent the spread of food-borne illness is to:
a. wash hands regularly
b. cook all foods thoroughly
c. purchase food from trusted vendors
d. prepare food shortly before serving
a. wash hands regularly
The amino acid tryptophan can be converted into:
a. serotonin
b. catecholamines
c. pheylalanine
d. tyrosine
a. serotonin
A muffin has long tunnels from top to bottom. Next time you should:
a. add more baking soda
b. avoid over-mixing the batter
c. add less butter
d. cook it for a shorter time
b. avoid over-mixing the batter
Prevention of an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes requires special care because:
a. it is insensitive to light
b. it is sensitive to low temperatures
c. its ability to grow at 34-113 F
d. its ability to grow at 140-160 F
c. its ability to grow at temps of 34-113 F
Phenylalanine is a precursor for;
a. serotonin
b. catecholamines
c. tryptophan
d. tyrosine
d. tyrosine
A cutting board was used to cut up raw chicken and then raw vegetables. Guests became ill from:
a. Clostridium botulinum
b. Clostridium perfringens
c. Salmonella
d. Streptotoccus
c. Salmonella
Decreased levels of serotonin are associated with:
a. decrease in CHO appetite
b. increase in CHO appetite
c. decreased sensation of taste
d. increased sensation of taste
b. increase in carbohydrate appetite
What must be fortified with folic acid?
a. skim milk
b. cornmeal
c. orange juice
d. canned vegetables
b. cornmeal
Pie crust is moist the day after cooking. Why?
a. overcooking of the crust
b. retrogradation
c. too much egg in the recipe
d. inadequate flour
b. retrogradation
What is the main purpose of water in the body?
a. it acts as a medium for cell metabolism
b. it helps transport calcium through cell membranes
c. maintains electrolyte balance
d. to maintain body temperature
a. it acts as a medium for cell metabolism
What is fluid seeping from a congealed product called?
a. retrogradation
b. syneresis
c. coagulation
d. gelatinization
b. syneresis
Which of the following is a common cause of salmonella in a salad bar?
a. fresh fruit
b. egg salad
c. lettuce and tomatoes
d. pickles
b. egg salad
Which food-borne pathogen would most likely contaminate cooked rice or pasta in open pans at room temperature?
a. Clostridium perfringens
b. Bacillus cereus
c. Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus
d. Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus
b. Bacillus cereus
Frozen chicken has been thawed in warm water. You should:
a. prepare it immediately
b. discard it
c. refreeze it
d. refrigerate it
b. discard it
When substituting butter for lard in pastry,
a. use the same amount
b. use less
c. use more
d. use less and decrease the water content
c. use more
The purpose of an emulsifier in margarine is to:
a. keep water and fat from separating
b. keep water and fat separated
c. sustain the natural flavor of the ingredients
d. retain the color
a. keep water and fat from separating
Which of the following must be reduced to simpler components before it can be transported across epithelial cells of the intestine?
a. dipeptides b. whey
c. casein hydrolysate d. crystalline aa
b. whey
Adding bran to a bread recipe will:
a. increase the volume
b. decrease the volume
c. require an increase in oven temperature
d. require a decrease in oven temperature
b. decrease the volume
An angel food cake is made without cream of tartar. What is the result?
a. a yellowy cake
b. a bright white cake
c. a cake with large volume
d. a very tender cake
a. a yellowy cake
All baking powders contain:
a. sodium bicarbonate
b. tartrate
c. phosphate
d. acetate
a. sodium bicarbonate
Beef bottom round should be cooked:
a. at a high temperature for a short time
b. in water for an extended time
c. in dry heat
d. in moist heat for a short time
b. in water for an extended time
When there is plenty of oxygen and you are involved in heavy exercise, what becomes the energy source?
a. glucose
b. glycogen
c. lactic acid
d. fatty acids
b. glycogen
What is the best way to cook a roast?
a. sear the meat first, roast at 400F
b. cook slowly in the oven at 325F
c. cook it at 400F for 10 min, then at 350F
d. brown the meat, then cook it at 350F
b. cook slowly in the oven at 325F
To reduce your intake of phosphorus, reduce your intake of:
a. orange juice
b. grapefruits
c. beef
d. tomato juice
c. beef
Which of the following has the most bacteria?
a. roast chicken
b. ground beef
c. roast veal
d. roast pork
b. ground beef
What is the product of pyruvate breakdown?
a. acetyl CoA
b. glycogen
d. glucose-6-phosphate
a. acetyl CoA
Which of the following is true?
a. fructose has sucrose
b. fructose is less concentrated than glucose
c. fructose takes longer to digest than glucose
d. fructose is sweeter than glucose
d. fructose is sweeter than glucose
Which of the following is correct?
a. glucose is less sweet than sucrose
b. lactose is sweeter than glucose
c. glucose is sweeter than fructose
d. lactose is sweeter than fructose
a. glucose is less sweet than sucrose
Which of the following is a grade for fresh produce?
a. US select
b. US Grade A
c. US No. 1
d. US Standard
c. US No. 1
Which is most likely to be a cause of Salmonella?
a. fresh fruit salad
b. canned fruit salad
c. Caesar salad
d. avocado salad
c. Caesar salad
What gives the structure to quick breads?
a. flour and milk
b. flour and water
c. egg and flour
d. egg
c. egg and flour
During energy metabolism, which of the following conversions is true?
a. pyruvate to acetyl CoA is reversible
b. pyruvate to acetyl CoA is irreversible
c. pyruvic acid to lactic acid is not reversible
d. glucose to G6P is not reversible
b. conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is irreversible
What is a function of cream of tartar in a recipe?
a. prevents the Maillard reaction
b. enhances the Maillard reaction
c. increases the alkalinity allowing for better leavening
d. enhances gelation
a. prevents the Maillard reaction
The flour with the most starch is:
a. cake
b. whole wheat
c. instantized
d. durum
a. cake
Salmonella contamination in a foodservice can be best controlled by focusing on:
a. meat delivery procedures
b. sanitizing of the meat slicer
c. serving less meat
d. meat storage procedures
b. sanitizing of the meat slicer
Homemade rolls are crumbly and fall apart easity. The most likely cause of the poor texture in the yeast bread is:
a. use of a high-protein flour
b. use of a lower-protein flour
c. insufficient proofing time
d. excessive proofing time
b. use of a lower-protein flour
Which is the best source of monounsaturated fatty acids?
a. corn
b. canola
c. soybean
d. safflower
b. canola
A muffin mix described as a "rich formula", means it contains:
a. high proportions of sugar and shortening
b. high-fructose corn syrup
c. high amounts of whey
d. more chemical leavening than is used in a "lean formula"
a. high proportions of sugar and shortening
The greatest effect on the yield of meat cooked to a uniform internal temperature is produced by the:
a. type of oven and source of the heat
b. weight of meat and oven load
c. degree of tempering and grade of meat
d. cooking time and oven temp
d. cooking time and the oven temperature
The most likely source of Clostridium perfringens is:
a. egg
b. meat
c. fruit
d. vegetable
b. meal
Which of the following will stabilize the egg in a recipe?
a. base
b. acid
c. sugar
d. salt
b. an acid
A natural plant hormone that is used to ripen fruits is:
a. methanol
b. ethylene
c. acetyl acid
d. ethanol
b. ethylene
Aseptically packaged milk should be stored:
a. in dry storage
b. in the refrigerator
c. in the freezer
d. below 40 degrees
a. in dry storage
Which of the following has a slow onset and is anaerobic?
a. staphylococcus aureus
b. clostridium perfringens
c. clostridium botulinum
d. salmonella
c. clostridium botulinum
A frozen meal contains steak, mashed potatoes, BHA, BHT, and TVP. TVP is used to:
a. add color
b. improve taste
c. retain water and add protein
d. act as an emulsifier
c. retain water and add protein
If broccoli in a vegetable mixture turns olive green during holding, it may be due to:
a. lemon juice
b. baking soda
c. salt
d. sugar
a. lemon juice
In the alanine cycle, alanine is released from muscle, taken up by the liver, and:
a. excreted in the urine
b. deaminated to release glucose
c. converted into adipose
d. oxidized to nitric acid
b. deaminated to release glucose
In the Cori cycle, lactate is converted into:
a. ribose
c. pyruvate
d. acetyl CoA
c. pyruvate
Normal saline has ____ mEq sodium/L.
a. 154
b. 100
c. 50
d. 200
a. 154
An amylase deficiency would result in:
a. decreased gluconeogenesis
b. decreased lipolysis
c. decreased glycolysis
d. decreased proteolysis
c. decreased glycolysis
Fresh eggs in the shell can be stored in a refrigerator at 40 degrees for:
a. 3 weeks
b. 2 weeks
c. 10 days
d. 4-6 days
a. 3 weeks
Trypsin and chymotrypsin are:
a. pancreatic enzymes that provide proteolytic action
b. intestinal enzymes that digest starch
c. liver hormones involved in fat digestion
d. intestinal enzymes that digest protein
a. pancreatic enzymes that provide proteolytic action
Acid-base abnormalities in an uncontrolled diabetic are likely due to:
a. respiratory alkalosis
b. metabolic acidosis
c. respiratory acidosis
d. metabolic alkalosis
b. metabolic acidosis
A patient's nitrogen balance study showed he consumed 10g of protein and released 6g of N in the urine. This is:
a. nitrogen balance
b. negative nitrogen balance
c. positive nitrogen balance
d. plus 4 nitrogen balance
b. negative nitrogen balance
Kidneys help control pH by:
a. excreting sodium and calcium
b. controlling the ratio of H ions to bicarb excretion
c. excreting CO2 and carbonic acid
d. excreting NADPH
b. controlling the ratio of hydrogen ions to bicarbonate excretion
Pernicious anemia is likely to occur following a:
a. colectomy
b. colostomy
c. gastrectomy
d. esophagostomy
c. gastrectomy
Looking at the following data, what is this person's total insensible fluid loss?
urine-2100, intestinal-250, lungs/skin-700
a. 700ml b. 950ml
c. 2100ml d. 3050ml
a. 700 ml
Which pigment can be converted into a vitamin?
a. chlorophyll
b. carotenoids
c. anthocyanin
d. anthoxanthins
b. carotenoids to vitamin A
The amount of cerulosplasmin is affected by what disease?
a. Addison's disease
b. pheochromocytoma
c. Cushing's syndrome
d. Wilson's disease
d. Wilson's disease
An edematous person may actually be dehydrated because:
a. intravascular fluid is retained
b. intravascular fluid is diluted
c. fluid is retained intracellularly
d. fluid is retained extracelluarly
d. fluid is retained extracellularly
What usually occurs when iso-caloric amounts of omega 3 fa's are substituted for saturated fa's?
a. increased HDL, reduced LDL
b. decreased TG, lower total cholesterol
c. decreased TG, little change in total chol.
d. lower HDL, increased LDL
c. decreased TG, little change in total cholesterol
When substituted for saturated fats int he diet, which of the following oils will likely lower total cholesterol but also lower HDL cholesterol?
a. olive oil
b. canola oil
c. peanut oil
d. safflower oil
d. safflower oil
You are a food service dietitian and would like to make lower fat brownies. What is the best way to cut the fat?
a. use marg instead of butter
b. cut out all the fat
c. cut out half the fat
d. use prune puree in place of half the fat
d. use prune puree in place of half the fat
You want to keep lemon meringue pie at its peak. What should you do?
a. add sugar with eggs
b. add flour with butter
c. keep the pie at room temperature
d. keep the pie refrigerated
d. keep the pie refrigerated
CHO, fat and protein are all converted into:
a. pyruvic acid
b. acetyl CoA
b. oxaloacetic acid
d. ketoglutamic acid
b. acetyl CoA
If energy needs increase, which vitamins are needed in higher amounts?
a. A, C, folate
b. A, C, B1
c. B1, B2, B3, B5
d. B6, cyanocobalamin
c. B1, B2, B3, B5
How many mEq of sodium are in 1g of Na?
a. 25
b. 43
c. 65
d. 110
b. 43
How an you preserve thiamin when cooking pork?
a. use drippings after fat is removed
b. insert meat thermometer and cook to 170F
c. increase cooking temp to lessen cook time
d. add a small quantity of water during cooking
b. insert a meat thermometer and cook it to 170F
A good source of vitamin A for pre-school children would be:
a. grapes
b. watermelon
c. cantaloupe pieces
d. banana
c. cantaloupe pieces
Which amino acid is especially glucogenic?
a. alanine
b. threonine
c. valine
d. methionine
a. alanine
If CHO intake is increased, which vitamin needs to be increased?
a. thiamin
b. niacin
c. riboflavin
d. pyridoxine
a. thiamin
The rate of oxidation of which BCAA increases significantly during moderate exercise?
a. leucine
b. phenylalanine
c. tyrosine
d. threonine
a. leucine
What should your do with leftover sliced beef from lunch?
a. throw it out
b. let the meat cool at room temp and then serve within 2 days
c. refrigerate immediately, serve within 2 days
d. keep it in the warmer until dinner time
c. refrigerate immediately and then serve within 2 days
A food is bacteria-safe if it is:
a. neutral and moist
b. neutral and dry
c. acidic and dry
d. acidic and moist
c. acidic and dry
French fries made from stored potatoes would have changes in:
a. taste
b. appearance
c. texture
d. all of the above
d. all – taste, appearance, and texture
What percent of protein and fat converts to glucose?
a. 58% protein, 10% fat
b. 10% protein, 60% fat
c. 30% protein, 30% fat
d. 20% protein, 40% fat
a. 58% protein, 10% fat
Excess amounts of zinc may lead to a deficiency of:
a. copper
b. magnesium
c. iron
d. cobalt
a. copper
When adding bran to a flour mixture, what should be changed?
a. baking temp
b. increase the fat and liquid
c. increase the oxidizing agent
d. increase the flour and liquid
d. increase the flour and liquid
Glycerol, aa's and ffa's will have what effect on the hypothalmus gland?
a. incease in satiety
b. decrease in satiety
c. increased activity level
d. increased lethargy
b. a decrease in satiety
Which of the following is a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas?
a. pepsin
b. amylase
c. lactase
d. maltase
b. amylase
Clostridium perfringens is often found in:
a. meat and gravied mixtures in large quantities
b. fresh fruits and veggies
c. dairy mixtures
d. uncured cheeses
a. meat and gravied mixtures in large quantities
Salmonella sources are often:
a. reheated foods
b. starchy foods and mixtures like casseroles
c. cooled slowly reheated foods
d. raw produce and uncooked foods of animal origin
d. raw produce and uncooked foods of animal origin